Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD)

2016 ARS PosterPhoto of farm machinery working in field

Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation

Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) also known as ‘biological soil disinfestation’ or ‘reductive soil disinfestation’ is a pre-plant non-chemical soil disinfestation technique proposed as an alternative to chemical soil fumigation (CSF) for the control of several soil-borne diseases, plant-parasitic nematodes, and weeds in vegetable and fruit crops (Shennan et al. 2014; Rosskopf et al. 2015). Developed independently in Japan (Momma et al., 2013) and The Netherlands (Blok et al., 2000) for both open field and protected crops, the technique has gained interest in the USA, China and other countries (Shennan et al., 2014). The principle of the technique is to create a temporarily anaerobic soil environment to stimulate the growth of facultative and obligate anaerobic microorganisms. Under anaerobic conditions these organisms decompose the available carbon (C) source, which produces organic acids, aldehydes, alcohols, ammonia, metal ions, and volatile organic compounds that are suppressive or toxic for several soil-borne pests and diseases (Momma 2008; Huang et al. 2015; van Agtmaal et al. 2015).

The ASD treatment involves three steps. (1) The first is to amend the soil with sources of readily decomposable carbon and organic matter to initiate rapid growth and respiration of soil microbes just prior to forming the raised plant beds. (2) In second step is to cover the plant bed with a polyethylene mulch that prevents oxygen from escaping from the soil surface. This maintains the anaerobic environment once it is established. (3) Step 3 is to irrigate the soil to saturate the pore space and further reduce the presence of oxygen, creating the desired anaerobic environment in the soil (Butler et al., 2014; Shennan et al., 2014). Researchers of the United States Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) in collaboration with researchers from the University of California and the University of Florida created the process currently under study in Florida. In this research, molasses is the source of readily decomposable carbon and composted poultry litter provides the organic matter. Totally impermeable film (TIF) is used as a mulch on the bed and 2 inches of water are applied to saturate the soil. The grower can punch the plastic and transplant the planting material three weeks after treatment application.

ASD has proved to be effective against several soil-borne fungal and bacterial plant diseases, plant-parasitic nematodes and weeds, across a wide range of crops and environments (Butler et al., 2012a; 2012b; Lamers et al., 2010; Momma, 2008; Rosskopf et al., 2015; Shennan et al., 2014). However, the mechanism of control is not fully understood. Researchers around the world are working to explain the changes that occur in the soil during the ASD treatment and how these changes affect the target pests and weeds. A major focus of research is to find ways to facilitate the use of this technique at a commercial scale.

Current research focuses on six goals:
  1. Identify alternative low-cost and locally available C-sources
  2. Calculate the optimal application rate for each C source
  3. Develop large scale application methods
  4. Understand the effect of ASD on different crops and its impact on yield and product quality
  5. Identify the short and long-term effects of ASD on soil fertility
  6. Assess the potential impact of ASD on the environment
Project Activities
  • Conducting research assessments with producers and service providers by employing participatory action research methods and facilitated focus group discussions
  • Interactive field days at UF research and education centers
  • Presentations at conferences
  • Production of videos documenting the research and outcomes

Team Members

Erin Rosskopf – ARS
Jason Hong – ARS
Francesco DiGioia- ARS
Wesley Schonborn – ARS
Pragna Patel- ARS
Johnna Stafford – ARS
Michael Hensley – ARS
Cristina Pisani- ARS
Peter D’Aiuto – ARS
Xin Zhao – UF
Bodh Paudel – UF
Zachary Black – UF
Qiang Zhu – UF
Mickie Swisher – UF
Kaylene Sattanno – UF
Alia DeLong – UF
Zhifeng Gao – UF
Jinghui Wang – UF
Chris Wilson – UF
Zhuona Li – UF

Videos

Coming soon…

Journal Publications

Guo, H., Zhao, X., Rosskopf, E.N., Di Gioia, F., Hong, J.C. & McNear Jr, D.H. (2018) Impacts of anaerobic soil disinfestation and chemical fumigation on soil microbial communities in field tomato production system. Applied Soil Ecology. 126:165-173.

Paudel, B.R., Di Gioia, F., Zhao, X., Ozores-Hampton, M., Hong, J.C., Kokalis-Burelle, N., Pisani, C., & Rosskopf, E.N.  (2018) Evaluating anaerobic soil disinfestation and other biological soil management strategies for open-field tomato production in Florida.  Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems. 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1742170518000571

Di Gioia, F., Ozores-Hampton, M., Zhao, X., Thomas, J., Wilson, P., Li, Z., Hong, J., Albano, J., Swisher, M., and Rosskopf, E. (2017) Anaerobic soil disinfestation impact on soil nutrients dynamics and nitrous oxide emissions in fresh-market tomato. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 240:194-205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2017.02.025

Guo, H., Di Gioia, F., Zhao, X., Ozores-Hampton, M., Swisher, M. E., Hong, J., Kokalis-Burelle, N., DeLong, A.N. & Rosskopf, E.N. (2017). Optimizing anaerobic soil disinfestation for fresh market tomato production: Nematode and weed control, yield and fruit quality. Scientia Horticulturae. 218:105-116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2017.01.054 0304-4238

Johns, C., Lee, A., Springer, T., Rosskopf, E., Hong, J.C., Turechek, W., Kokalis-Burelle, N. & Finley, N.  (2017) Using NMP-based metabolomics to monitor the biochemical composition of agricultural soils: A pilot study.  European J. Soil Biology. 83:98-105.

Serrano-Pérez, P., Rosskopf, E., De Santiago, A. & del Carmen Rodríguez-Molina, M. (2017) Anaerobic soil disinfestation reduces survival and infectivity of Phytophthora nicotianae chlamydospores in pepper. Scientia horticulturae. 215:38-48.

Di Gioia, F., Ozores-Hampton, M., Hong, J., Kokalis-Burelle, N., Albano, J., Zhao, X., Black, Z., Gao, Z., Wilson, C., Thomas, J., Moore, K., Swisher, M.E., Guo, H., and Rosskopf, E. N. (2016) The effect of anaerobic soil disinfestation on weed and nematode control, fruit yield and quality of Florida fresh-market tomato. Hortscience. 51(6):703-711. [pdf]

Butler, D. Kokalis-Burelle, N., Albano, J., McCollum, T., Muramoto, J., Shennan, C., & Rosskopf, E.  (2014) Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) combined with soil solarization as a methyl bromide alternative: Vegetable crop performance and soil nutrient dynamics.  Plant Soil. 378:365-381.

Rosskopf, E.N., Burelle, N., Hong, J. C., Butler, D.M., Noling, J.W., He, Z., Booker, B. & Sances, F. (2014) Comparison of anaerobic soil disinfestation and drip-applied organic acids for raised-bed specialty crop production in Florida. Acta Hort. (ISHS). 1044:221-228.

Kokalis-Burelle, N., Butler, D.M., & Rosskopf, E.N. (2013) Evaluation of cover crops with potential for use in anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) for susceptibility to three species of meloidogyne. Journal of Nematology. 45(4):272-278.

Butler, D.M., Kokalis-Burelle, N., Muramoto, J., Shennan, C., McCollum, & Rosskopf, E.N.  (2012) Impact of anaerobic soil disinfestations combined with soil solarization on plant-parasitic nematodes and introduced inoculum of soilborne plant pathogens in raised-bed vegetable production.  Crop Protection. 39:33-40.

Butler, D.M., Rosskopf, E.N., Kokalis-Burelle, N., Albano, J.P., Muramoto, J., & Shennan, C.  (2012) Exploring warm-season cover crops as carbon sources for anaerobic soil disinfestations (ASD).  Plant and Soil. 378:365-381.

Posters

Paudel, B.R., Zhao, X., Di Gioia, F., Ozores-Hampton, M., Hong, J. C., and Rosskopf, E. N. (2017) Using cereal rye as a catch crop to examine the residual effects of anaerobic soil disinfestation and other biological soil management practices following open field tomato production. ASA-SSSA-CSSA International Annual Meeting.
https://scisoc.confex.com/scisoc/2017am/webprogram/Paper107177.html

Di Gioia, F., Ozores-Hampton, M., Hong, J., and Rosskopf, E. (2016) Anaerobic soil disinfestation: carbon rate effects on soil pH, temperature, redox potential, and tomato plant growth. American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Conference. https://ashs.confex.com/ashs/2016/webprogram/Paper24454.html

Di Gioia, F., Ozores-Hampton, M., Hong, J., McCollum, G., and Rosskopf, E. N. (2016) Anaerobic ASD: Carbon Rate Effects on Tomato Plant Growth and Organic Acid Production. Proceedings 2016 Annual International Research Conference on Methyl Bromide Alternatives and Emissions Reductions. www.mbao.org/static/docs/confs/2016-orlando/papers/15di_gioia_mbao_2016_2.pdf

Guo, H., Zhao, X., Rosskopf, E. N., Kokalis-Burelle, N., Albano, J., Hong, J., Di Gioia, F., Ozores-Hampton, M. (2016) Effects of Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation and Herbicide Application on Tomato Production and Fruit Quality. Annual Conference of the American Society for Horticultural Sciences. HortScience 51(9) Supplement: S332-S333.

Hong, J., Di Gioia, F., Ozores-Hampton, M., and Rosskopf, E. (2016) Comparison of carbon quantity in anaerobic soil disinfestation. American Phytopathological Society. https://www.apsnet.org/meetings/Documents/2016_meeting_abstracts/aps2016_843.htm

Sattanno, K., DeLong, A., Swisher, M. E., Wang, J., Moore, K. N., Zhao, X., Ozores-Hampton, M., Gao, Z., Hong, J., Di Gioia, F., Guo, H., Black, Z., and Rosskopf, E. (2016) Improving the Quality of Research in Agriculture through Industry Feedback. 7th National Small Farm Conference. 2016 2016 ARS Poster

Wang, J., Gao, Z., Zhao, X., Black, Z., Guo, H., Di Gioia, F., Ozores-Hampton, M., Hong, J., Swisher, M., and Rosskopf, E. N. (2016) Economic analysis of anaerobic soil disinfestation on tomato production in southwest and north Florida. American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Conference. http://ashs.confex.com/ashs/2016/webprogram/Paper24921.html

Presentations

Paudel, B. R., Zhao, X., Di Gioia, F., Ozores-Hampton, M., Hong, J. C., & Rosskopf, E. N. (2017) Using cereal rye as a catch crop to examine the residual effects of anaerobic soil disinfestation and other biological soil management practices following open field tomato production. ASA-SSSA-CSSA International Annual Meetinghttps://scisoc.confex.com/scisoc/2017am/webprogram/Paper107177.html

Paudel, B.R., Zhao, X., Di Gioia, F., Ozores-Hampton, M., Hong, J. C., Kokalis-Burelle, N. and Rosskopf, E. N. (2017) Evaluating anaerobic soil disinfestation and other biological soil management methods for open-field tomato production in Florida. ASA-SSSA-CSSA International Annual Meeting.
https://scisoc.confex.com/scisoc/2017am/webprogram/Paper106866.html

Ozores-Hampton, M., Di Gioia, F., Paudel, B. R., Zhao, X., Hong, J. C., & Rosskopf, E. N. (2017) Evaluation of Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation Soil Amendments and Rates for Conventional Tomato Production in Florida. https://swfrec.ifas.ufl.edu/docs/pdf/veg-hort/asd/Evaluation_ASD_Soil_Amendments_Rates_Conventional_Tomato_Production_FL.pdf

Di Gioia, F., Ozores-Hampton, M., Hong, J., & Rosskopf, E. N. (2016) Anaerobic soil disinfestation: carbon rate effects on soil pH, temperature, redox potential, and tomato plant growth. American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Conferencehttps://ashs.confex.com/ashs/2016/webprogram/Paper24454.html

Di Gioia, F., Ozores-Hampton, M., Hong, J., Kokalis-Burelle, N., Guo, H., Zhao, X., and Rosskopf, E. N. (2016) Optimizing ASD for Florida fresh-market tomato production. Methyl Bromide Alternatives Outreach. https://mbao.org/static/docs/confs/2016-orlando/papers/14digioiafasd_1.pdf

Di Gioia, F., Ozores-Hampton, M., Hong, J., Kokalis-Burelle, N., Albano, J., Zhao, X., and Rosskopf, E. N. (2016) Anaerobic soil disinfestation effects on weed and nematode control, plant growth, fruit yield and quality of fresh-market tomato . American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Conference. http://ashs.confex.com/ashs/2016/webprogram/Paper24180.html

Di Gioia, F., Ozores-Hampton, M., Zhao, X., Thomas, J., Wilson, P., Li, Z., Hong, J., Albano, J., and Rosskopf, E. N. (2016) Anaerobic soil disinfestation impact on nutrient dynamics in fresh-market tomato. Methyl Bromide Alternatives Outreach.
https://mbao.org/static/docs/confs/2016-orlando/papers/15di_gioia_mbao_2016_2.pdf

Hong, J., Di Gioia, F., Ozores-Hampton, M., & Rosskopf, E. N. (2016) Comparison of carbon quantity in anaerobic soil disinfestation. American Phytopathological Society Annual Meeting. https://www.apsnet.org/meetings/Documents/2016_meeting_abstracts/aps2016_843.htm

Hong, J. C., Di Gioia, F., Ozores-Hampton, M., and Rosskopf, E. N. (2016) Effect of molasses in ASD: Focus on the soil microbiome. Methyl Bromide Alternatives Outreach. https://mbao.org/static/docs/confs/2016-orlando/papers/16hong_mbao_2016.pdf

Rosskopf, E., Hong, J., Kokalis-Burelle, N., Ozores-Hampton, M., Di Gioia, F., Roe, N., Zhao, X., Booker, B., and Sances, F. (2016) New approaches to management of Fusarium wilt of tomato in Florida. 5th International Symposium on Tomato Disease.

Rosskopf, E. N., Hong, J., Ozores-Hampton, M., Zhao, X., Di Gioia, F., Black, Z., Gao, Z., Wilson, C., Thomas, J., Monaghan, K., Sattanno, K., DeLong, A., Swisher, M., Guo, H., Muramoto, J., Kokalis-Burelle, N., Shennan, C., Wang, J., Li, Z., Shrestha, U., and Butler, D. M. (2016) USDA, AES Areawide Project on Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation. Methyl Bromide Alternatives Outreach. https://mbao.org/static/docs/confs/2016-orlando/papers/13rosskopfe_asd_areawide.pdf

Di Gioia, F., Ozores-Hampton, M., & Rosskopf, E. N. (2015) History and Principles of Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation. Southwest Florida Research and Education Center Fall Vegetable Field Dayhttps://swfrec.ifas.ufl.edu/docs/pdf/veg-hort/asd/DiGioia_ASD_Immokalee_SWFREC_Field_Day.pdf